A cogent, well-supported analysis and hopeful, if idealistic, suggestion for change.



A study of how economic inequality affects individuals’ self-perception and community life.

Drawing on recent peer-reviewed research in the U.S. and U.K., British researchers Wilkinson (Emeritus, Epidemiology/Univ. of Nottingham Medical School) and Pickett (Research Champion for Justice and Equality/Univ. of York) expand on and update the argument they put forth in their previous book, The Spirit Level (2009). In the first seven chapters, they analyze the psychological and social consequences of inequality, primarily self-doubt and social anxiety, which they find most prevalent in the two nations where inequality is greatest: the U.S. and the U.K. To deal with these two pervasive and debilitating effects, individuals develop strategies such as narcissism and self-aggrandizement, self-medication with drugs and alcohol, and consumerism “in an attempt to create a positive image of themselves.” They may also become convinced that inequality is caused by meritocracy—inherent ability or hard work—thereby absolving themselves of responsibility for questioning social hierarchy. The authors cite “a widespread but largely false belief that people’s social status reflects their individual genetic endowments of cognitive ability,” when studies show that success is largely determined by parental social status. They also underscore the “increased social evaluative threat” generated by inequality: As people fear shame and distress because of what they imagine others think of them, they become distrustful and, “more worried about appearances and giving the wrong impression,” withdraw from community life and political participation. Making a strong case that “inequality is divisive and socially corrosive,” the authors assert that greater equality and environmental sustainability can be achieved by instituting changes such as employee representation on corporate boards and in legislative processes and an increase in cooperatives and employee-owned businesses to ensure that democracy is extended into the economic sphere. They acknowledge, however, that such developments will meet with resistance from CEOs, shareholders, and politicians with ties to the wealthy. Progressive politicians, therefore, must advocate this “major step in human progress.”

A cogent, well-supported analysis and hopeful, if idealistic, suggestion for change.

Pub Date: Jan. 22, 2019

ISBN: 978-0-525-56122-4

Page Count: 352

Publisher: Penguin Press

Review Posted Online: Oct. 23, 2018

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Nov. 15, 2018

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Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.


“Quality of life means more than just consumption”: Two MIT economists urge that a smarter, more politically aware economics be brought to bear on social issues.

It’s no secret, write Banerjee and Duflo (co-authors: Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way To Fight Global Poverty, 2011), that “we seem to have fallen on hard times.” Immigration, trade, inequality, and taxation problems present themselves daily, and they seem to be intractable. Economics can be put to use in figuring out these big-issue questions. Data can be adduced, for example, to answer the question of whether immigration tends to suppress wages. The answer: “There is no evidence low-skilled migration to rich countries drives wage and employment down for the natives.” In fact, it opens up opportunities for those natives by freeing them to look for better work. The problem becomes thornier when it comes to the matter of free trade; as the authors observe, “left-behind people live in left-behind places,” which explains why regional poverty descended on Appalachia when so many manufacturing jobs left for China in the age of globalism, leaving behind not just left-behind people but also people ripe for exploitation by nationalist politicians. The authors add, interestingly, that the same thing occurred in parts of Germany, Spain, and Norway that fell victim to the “China shock.” In what they call a “slightly technical aside,” they build a case for addressing trade issues not with trade wars but with consumption taxes: “It makes no sense to ask agricultural workers to lose their jobs just so steelworkers can keep theirs, which is what tariffs accomplish.” Policymakers might want to consider such counsel, especially when it is coupled with the observation that free trade benefits workers in poor countries but punishes workers in rich ones.

Occasionally wonky but overall a good case for how the dismal science can make the world less—well, dismal.

Pub Date: Nov. 12, 2019

ISBN: 978-1-61039-950-0

Page Count: 432

Publisher: PublicAffairs

Review Posted Online: Aug. 29, 2019

Kirkus Reviews Issue: Sept. 15, 2019

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This moving, potent testament might have been titled “Black Lives Matter.” Or: “An American Tragedy.”

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The powerful story of a father’s past and a son’s future.

Atlantic senior writer Coates (The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood, 2008) offers this eloquent memoir as a letter to his teenage son, bearing witness to his own experiences and conveying passionate hopes for his son’s life. “I am wounded,” he writes. “I am marked by old codes, which shielded me in one world and then chained me in the next.” Coates grew up in the tough neighborhood of West Baltimore, beaten into obedience by his father. “I was a capable boy, intelligent and well-liked,” he remembers, “but powerfully afraid.” His life changed dramatically at Howard University, where his father taught and from which several siblings graduated. Howard, he writes, “had always been one of the most critical gathering posts for black people.” He calls it The Mecca, and its faculty and his fellow students expanded his horizons, helping him to understand “that the black world was its own thing, more than a photo-negative of the people who believe they are white.” Coates refers repeatedly to whites’ insistence on their exclusive racial identity; he realizes now “that nothing so essentialist as race” divides people, but rather “the actual injury done by people intent on naming us, intent on believing that what they have named matters more than anything we could ever actually do.” After he married, the author’s world widened again in New York, and later in Paris, where he finally felt extricated from white America’s exploitative, consumerist dreams. He came to understand that “race” does not fully explain “the breach between the world and me,” yet race exerts a crucial force, and young blacks like his son are vulnerable and endangered by “majoritarian bandits.” Coates desperately wants his son to be able to live “apart from fear—even apart from me.”

This moving, potent testament might have been titled “Black Lives Matter.” Or: “An American Tragedy.”

Pub Date: July 8, 2015

ISBN: 978-0-8129-9354-7

Page Count: 176

Publisher: Spiegel & Grau

Review Posted Online: May 6, 2015

Kirkus Reviews Issue: July 1, 2015

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